The People's Common Sense Medical Adviser


Urinary Signs

The microscopic examination of the urine, notwithtstanding the distaste, and even contempt, which many physicians manifest for such investigations, is pursued at the Invalids' Hotel and Surgical Institute, with inestimable benefit to our patients.

A represents the residue of normal human urine, as seen under the microscope. In division B is represented oxalate of urea. An excess of this element indicates indigestion, and is also characteristic of a plethoric, or full habit of the body. Nitrate of urea is represented in division C. A deficiency of urea in the renal secretion is a certain indication of anæmia.



In Fig. 2 (divisions A and B), highly magnified urinary deposits, which indicate different degrees of impairment of the digestive functions are represented. The crystals seen in division C indicate the same debility accompanied with derangement of the mental faculties. Those in divisions D and E indicate still more aggravated forms of the same disorder.


In division A is represented pus and mucus, the presence of which indicates suppuration of the kidneys (Bright's disease). In B pus globules are alone represented. In the division marked C are shown blood corpuscles as they are arranged in blood drawn from a vein or artery. D represents the same separated, as they always are when present in the urine. In E highly magnified oil globules are represented. If present in the urine, they indicate disease of the kidneys. In the division marked F are represented epithelial cells, the presnce of which in large numbers is indicative of diseaes of the mucous lining of the urinary organs.


In division A are presented urinary crystals, which indicate an irritable state of the nervous system. The crystals shown in division B are of the same character as the preceding, but bear evidence of greater mental debility. In division C are represented crystalling deposits indicating malassimilation of food and a tendency to hypochondria. Division D contains a representation of the mixed phosphates. They are indicative of severe diseases attended with hypochondria and general nervous prostration.


In division A are represented the mixed urates as they appear durin idiopathic fevers, as intermittent, remittent, etc. When appearing as seen in division B, a less violent affection of the same character is indicated. Division C represents urate of ammonia, occasionally observed when there is a tendency towards albuminuria, or dropsy, resulting from granular degeneration of the kidneys, as in incipient Bright's disease. In division D is represented urate of soda, which is present in the urine of persons suffering from gout. The crystals shown in division E consist of the same salt.


In division A, Fig. 6, is represented purulent matter as it appears in the urine. The absorption of pus from abscesses in different parts of the system is frequently followed by the appearance of pus globules in the urine. When fat globules, represented in division B, are found in the urine, they indicate fatty degeneration. In division C are representations of the cells found in the urine of persons suffering from consumption or other scrofulous diseases.


Fig. 7 represents the different forms of cystine found in the urine of scrofulous and consumptive persons. In division A it is represented as seen in an amorphous (non-crystallized) form, and in B it appears in crystals. In division C is a representation of the deposits seen in the urine of those who are greatly debilitated. In division D are seen epithelial cells mixed with mucus.


In division A, Fig. 8, are represented the caudated cells characteristic of hard cancer. The cells represented in division B are concentric, and characteristic of the soft varieties of cancer.

We might add many other illustrations of urinary deposits and state their several indications, but a sufficient number have been introduced to show the importance and practical value of microscopic examinations of the urine in distinguishing obscure diseases.

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