Memoirs of Count de Grammont
Exhausted themselves in festivals and rejoicings for his return.
Bishop Burnet confirms this account. "With the restoration of the
king," says he, "a spirit of extravagant joy spread over the nation, that
brought on with it the throwing off the very professions of virtue and
piety. All ended in entertainments and drunkenness, which overrun
the three kingdoms to such a degree, that it very much corrupted all
their morals. Under the colour of drinking the king's health, there were
great disorders, and much riot every where: and the pretences of religion, both in those of the hypocritical sort, and of the more honest, but
no less pernicious enthusiasts, gave great advantages, as well as they
furnished much matter to the profane mockers of true piety." -- History
of his own Times, vol. i., p. 127, 8vo edit. Voltaire says, King Charles
"was received at Dover by twenty thousand of his subjects, who fell upon
their knees before him; and I have been told by some old men who were
of this number, that hardly any of those who were present could refrain
from tears." -- Age of Lewis XIV. chap. 5.
At his coronation.
There is some reason to believe that the Count de Grammont, whose
circumstances at his first arrival at the court of Britain were inferior to
his rank, endeavoured to distinguish himself by his literary acquirements.
A scarce little book, in Latin and French, upon the coronation, has been
ascribed to him with some probability. The initials subscribed in different places of the work are P. D. C., which may correspond to Philibert
de Cramont, in which manner the family name was often spelled; and
the dedication seems to apply accurately to the count's circumstances.
The full title runs:
"Complementum Fortunatarum Insularum, sive Galathea Vaticinans;
being part of an epithalamium upon the auspicious match of the most
puissant and most serene Charles II., and the most illustrious Catharina,
Infanta of Portugal; with a description of the Fortunate Islands. Written
originally in French, by P. D. C., Gent., [The state of his fortune at this period not allowing the splendour of a
French nobleman, he was only considered a private gentleman; and this
he hints at in the dedication that follows.] and since translated by him into
Latin and English. With the translations also of the Description of S.
James's Park, and the late Fight at S. Lucar, by Mr. Edmund Waller;
the Panegyric of Charles the Second, by Mr. Dryden; and other pieces
relating to the present times. London, printed by W. G., 1662."
It is dedicated to James Boteler, Earl of Ossory, Viscount Thorle,
afterwards Duke of Ormond, previous to his going to Ireland, [Philibert, Count Grammont married the Duke of Ormond's sister.] which
dedication concludes thus:-- "The utmost height of my ambition, and
the utmost scope of my desseine at present, my lord, is only, since I have
no other means left me to provide for my attendance upon your lordship
and the heads of your honourable family, in this your journey, that you
will be pleased to accept of me, in this slender garbe, being every way
otherwise disappointed by the frowns of fortune, and so unfit to pretend
admittance in so splendid a train; unless it be
Nelle scorta di Febo, che a vos s'inchina,
Tutta ridente, tutta di scherzi piena.
But, my lord, my own words on another occasion:
------ Se quelque jour, la Fortune
Met en plus grande libertè
Mon Genie persecutè
Des rigueurs de cette importune,
Peut-être d'un Burin plus seur
Et d'un vers rempli de douceur
D'Ormond j'enterprendrai l'image;
Et dans les beaux exploits de tous ses descendans
La depeindray si bien que la plus fiere rage
Respectera ses traits jusqu'a la fin des temps.
"This is the vow, this is the serious wish of him, my lord, who desires,
for no better end, to be once again restored to the state of his former fortune, than to become thereby more ready and capable to wait hereafter on
your lordship otherwise than by his pen, and so declare, by some more
real deed than poetical expressions, how unfeignedly he is,
Most true and most devoted servant,
P. D. C."
The contents of the book consist chiefly of poetry of a complimentary
nature. The following well-known lines of Waller's, on Westminster
Abbey, he has given with much taste:--
"From hence he does that antique pile behold,
Where royal heads receive the sacred gold;
It gives them crowns, and does their ashes keep;
There made like gods, like mortals there they sleep."
"Passant plus outre il voit la chapelle ou nos rois
Reçoivent l'or sacrè et leur gardant les loix,
La terre aussi sacreè egalement leurs donne,
La droit de sepulture et la droit de couronne."
The contents of the volume are --
A Song of the Sea Nymph Galatea, upon the marriage of Charles II.
and the Princess Infanta of Portugal (fifteen stanzas, of ten lines each.)
The same in Latin.
The same in French.
St James's Park, by Waller, in English, French, and Latin.
Of the late War with Spain, 1657, and our Victory at St. Lucar, near
Cadiz, by the same, in English and French.
On his sacred Majesty's Coronation, by Dryden, English and French.
The Fortunate Islands, being part of a larger poem written formerly in
French, upon the happy inauguration of Charles II. By P. D. C.; and
since by him translated in English and Latin. Dedicated to his dear friend
Edmund Waller, Esq., with a specimen of an English version.
Another dedication:-- "To Prince Rupert, as a monument of his devoted respects and due esteem of his highness's celebrated virtues and
great experience in sea-voyages; and as a deserved acknowledgment of his
highness's indefatigable endeavours in promoting English plantations,
P. D. C. humbly dedicates this Pindaric Rapture; being part of his poem
of the Fortunate Islands, formerly written in French, and addressed to
the king's majesty upon the solemnity of his auspicious coronation."--
Twenty-five stanzas, of ten lines each.
The same in Latin.
The king's excursion on the Thames, July, anno 1661; an extempore
ode, "To the great and illustrious William, Earl of Devonshire, the noble and judicious Mecænas of polite literature; P. D. C. dedicates it in
obedient and grateful testimony," &c.
A short ode of about sixty lines.
If we are correct in imputing this work to Grammont, he must have
been in England at the time of the coronation, which agrees tolerably with
the vague expression in the text that he arrived about two years after the
Restoration. For this ceremony did not take place until after the deaths
of the Duke of Gloucester and the Princess of Orange. It was celebrated
22nd and 23rd April, 1661, with uncommon magnificence; the whole
show, as Lord Clarendon observes, being the most glorious, in the order
and expense, that had ever been seen in England. The procession began
from the Tower, and continued so long, that they who rode first were in
Fleet-street when the king issued from the Tower. The whole ceremonial took up two days. -- See Continuation of Clarendon, p. 29; Kennet's
[Pepys' account of the Coronation given in his amusing Diary
is so characteristic and illustrative, that we think it deserves a place
"April 22nd, 1661. The King's going from the Tower to White Hall.
Up early and made myself as fine as I could, and put on my velvet coat, the
first day that I put it on, though made half a year ago. And being ready,
Sir W. Batten, my Lady, and his two daughters and his son and wife, and
Sir W. Penn and his son and I, went to Mr. Young's, the flag-maker, in
Cornhill; and there we had a good room to ourselves, with wine and
good cake, and saw the show very well. In which it is impossible to
relate the glory of this day, expressed in the clothes of them that rid, and
their horses and horses-clothes. Among others, my Lord Sandwich's
embroidery and diamonds were not ordinary among them. The Knights
of the Bath was a brave sight of itself; and their Esquires, among which
Mr. Armiger was an Esquire to one of the Knights. Remarkable were
the two men that represent the two Dukes of Normandy and Aquitaine.
The Bishops come next after Barons, which is the higher place; which
makes me think that the next Parliament they will be called to the
House of Lords. My Lord Monk rode bare after the King, and led in
his hand a spare horse, as being Master of the Horse. The King, in a
most rich embroidered suit and cloak, looked most noble. Wadlow the
vintner, at the Devil, in Fleet-street, did lead a fine company of soldiers,
all young comely men, in white doublets. There followed the Vice-Chamberlain, Sir G. Carteret, a company of men all like Turks; but I
know not yet what they are for. The streets all gravelled, and the houses
hung with carpets before them, made brave show, and the ladies out of
the windows. So glorious was the show with gold and silver, that we
were not able to look at it, our eyes at last being so much overcome.
Both the King and the Duke of York took notice of us, as they saw us
at the window. In the evening, by water to White Hall to my Lord's,
and there I spoke with my Lord. He talked with me about his suit,
which was made in France, and cost him 200l., and very rich it is with
"23rd. About four I rose and got to the Abbey, where I followed Sir
J. Denham, the Surveyor, with some company that he was leading in.
And with much ado, by the favour of Mr. Cooper, his man, did get up
onto a great scaffold across the North end of the Abbey, where with a
great deal of patience I sat from past four till eleven before the King
came in. And a great pleasure it was to see the Abbey raised in the
middle, all covered with red, and a throne (that is a chair) and footstool
on the top of it; and all the officers of all kinds, so much as the very
fiddlers, in red vests. At last comes in the Dean and Prebends of Westminster, with the Bishops (many of them in cloth of gold copes), and
after them the Nobility, all in their Parliament robes, which was a most
magnificent sight. Then the Duke, and the King with a sceptre (carried
by my Lord Sandwich) and sword and wand before him, and the crown
too. The King in his robes, bare-headed, which was very fine. And
after all had placed themselves, there was a sermon and the service; and
then in the choir at the high altar, the King passed through all the ceremonies of the Coronation, which to my great grief I and most in the
Abbey could not see. The crown being put upon his head, a great
shout began, and he came forth to the throne, and there passed through
more ceremonies: as taking the oath, and having things read to him by
the Bishop: and his lords (who put on their caps as soon as the King
put on his crown) and bishops come, and kneeled before him. And
three times the King at Arms went to the three open places on the
scaffold, and proclaimed, that if any one could show any reason why
Charles Stewart should not be King of England, that now he should
corne and speak. And a General Pardon also was read by the Lord
Chancellor, and medals flung up and down by my Lord Cornwallis, of
silver, but I could not come by any. But so great a noise that I could
make but little of the music; and indeed, it was lost to every body. I
went out a little while before the King had done all his ceremonies, and
went round the Abbey to Westminster Hall, all the way within rails,
and 10,000 people with the ground covered with blue cloth; and scaffolds
all the way. Into the Hall I got, where it was very fine with hangings
and scaffolds one upon another full of brave ladies; and my wife in one
little one, on the right hand. Here I staid walking up and down, and at
last upon one of the side stalls I stood and saw the King come in with
all the persons (but the soldiers) that were yesterday in the cavalcade;
and a most pleasant sight it was to see them in their several robes. And
the King came in with his crown on, and his sceptre in his hand, under
a canopy borne up by six silver staves, carried by Barons of the Cinque
Ports, and little bells at every end. And after a long time, he got up to
the farther end, and all set themselves down at their several tables; and
that was also a brave sight: and the King's first course carried up by the
Knights of the Bath. And many fine ceremonies there was of the Heralds leading up people before him, and bowing; and my Lord of Albemarle's going to the kitchen and eating a bit of the first dish that was to
go to the King's table. But, above all, was these three Lords, Northumberland, and Suffolk, and the Duke of Ormond, coming before the
courses on horseback, and staying so all dinner-time, and at last bringing
up (Dymock) the King's Champion, all in armour on horseback, with his
bpear and target carried before him. And a Herald proclaims ' That
if any dare deny Charles Stewart to be lawful King of England, here was
a Champion that would fight with him;' and with these words the
Champion flings down his gauntlet, and all this he do three times in his
going up towards the King's table. To which when he is come, the
King drinks to him, and then sends him the cup which is of gold, and he
drinks it off, and then rides back again with the cup in his hand. I went
from table to table to see the Bishops and all others at their dinner, and
was infinitely pleased with it. And at the Lords' table, I met with William Howe, and he spoke to my Lord for me, and he did give him four
rabbits and a pullet, and so Mr. Creed and I got Mr. Minshell to give
us some bread, and so we at a stall eat it, as every body else did what
they could get. I took a great deal of pleasure to go up and down, and
look upon the ladies, and to hear the music of all sorts, but above all,
the twenty-four violins. About six at night they had dined, and I went
up to my wife. And strange it is to think, that these two days have held
up fair till now that all is done, and the King gone out of the Hall; and
then it fell a-raining and thundering and lightening as I have not seen it
do for some years: which people did take great notice of; God's blessing of the work of these two days, which is a foolery to take too much
notice of such things. I observed little disorder in all this, only the
King's footmen had got hold of the canopy, and would keep it from the
Barons of the Cinque Ports, which they endeavoured to force from them
again, but could not do it till my Lord Duke of Albemarle caused it to be
put into Sir R. Pye's hand till to-morrow to be decided. At Mr. Bowyer's; a great deal of company, some I knew, others I did not. Here
we staid upon the leads and below till it was late, expecting to see the
fire-works, but they were not performed to-night: only the city had a
light like a glory round about it with bonfires. At last I went to King-street, and there sent Crockford to my father's and my house, to tell
them I could not come home to-night, because of the dirt, and a coach
could not be had. And so I took my wife and Mrs. Frankleyn (whom I
proffered the civility of lying with my wife at Mrs. Hunt's to-night) to
Axe-yard, in which at the further end there were three great bonfires,
and a great many great gallants, men and women; and they laid hold of
us, and would have us drink the King's health upon our knees, kneeling
upon a faggot, which we all did, they drinking to us one after another.
Which we thought a strange frolic; but these gallants continued there
a great while, and I wondered to see how the ladies did tipple. At last
I sent my wife and her bedfellow to bed, and Mr. Hunt and I went in
with Mr. Thornbury (who did give the company all their wine, he being
yeoman of the wine-cellar to the King); and there, with his wife and
two of his sisters, and some gallant sparks that were there, we drank the
King's health, and nothing else, till one of the gentlemen fell down stark
drunk, and there lay; and I went to my Lord's pretty well. Thus did
the day end with joy every where; and blessed be God, I have not
heard of any mischance to any body through it all, but only to Serjeant
Glynne, whose horse fell upon him yesterday, and is like to kill him,
which people do please themselves to see how just God is to punish the
rogue at such a time as this: he being now one of the King's Serjeants,
and rode in the cavalcade with Maynard, to whom people wish the
same fortune. There was also this night in King-street, a woman
had her eye put out by a boy's flinging a firebrand into the coach. Now,
after all this, I can say, that, besides the pleasure of the sight of these
glorious things, I may now shut my eyes against any other objects, nor
for the future trouble myself to see things of state and show, as being
sure never to see the like again in this world.
"24th. At night, set myself to write down these three days' diary,
and while I am about it, I hear the noise of the chambers, and other
things of the fire-works, which are now playing upon the Thames
before the King; and I wish myself with them, being sorry not to see
"30th. This morning my wife and I and Mr. Creed, took coach,
and in Fish-street took up Mr. Hater and his wife, who through her
mask seemed at first to be an old woman, but afterwards I found her to
be a very pretty modest black woman. We got a small bait at Leatherhead, and so to Godlyman, where we lay all night. I am sorry that I
am not at London, to be at Hyde-park to-morrow, among the great gallants and ladies, which will be very fine."]
The death of the Duke of Gloucester.
This event took place September 3rd, 1660. He died of the smallpox. [Pepys says, "by the great negligence of his doctors."] "Though
mankind," as Mr. Macpherson observes, "are apt to exaggerate the
virtues of princes who happen to die in early youth, their praises
seem to have done no more than justice to the character of Gloucester. He joined in himself the best qualities of both his brothers;
the understanding and good-nature of Charles, to the industry and application of James. The facility of the first was in him, a judicious moderation. The obstinacy of the latter was, in Gloucester, a manly firmness
of mind. Attached to the religion, and a friend to the constitution of his
country, he was most regretted, when his family regarded these the least.
The vulgar, who crowd with eminent virtues and great actions the years
which fate denies to their favourites, foresaw future misfortunes in his
death; and even the judicious supposed that the measures of Charles
might have derived solidity from his judgment and promising parts. The
king lamented his death with all the vehemence of an affectionate sorrow."
The Duke of York was much affected with the loss of a brother, whose
high merit he much admired. "He was a prince," says James, "of the
greatest hopes, undaunted courage, admirable parts, and a clear understanding," He had a particular talent of languages. Besides the Latin,
he was master of the French, the Spanish, the Italian, and Low Dutch.
He was, in short, possessed of all the natural qualities, as well as acquired accomplishments, necessary to make a great prince. -- Macpherson's History of Great Britain, ch. 1. Bishop Burnet's character of this
young prince is also very favourable. -- See Burnet's Own Times,
vol. i. p. 238.
Mary, eldest daughter of Charles I., born November 4th, 1631. married to the Prince of Orange 2nd May, 1641, who died 27th October, 1650.
She arrived in England September 23rd. [Pepys says, in his Diary,
March 17th, 1660, "In a coach we went to see a house of the Princess
Dowager's, in a park about a mile from the Hague, where there is one of
the most beautiful rooms for pictures in the whole world. She had here
one picture upon the top, with these words, dedicating it to the memory
of her husband: -- ' Incomparabili marito, inconsolabilis vidua.' "] She
died of the small-pox December 24th, 1660, according to Bishop Burnet,
"not much lamented. She had lived," says the author, "in her widowhood for some years with great reputation, kept a decent court, and supported her brothers very liberally; and lived within bounds. But her
mother, who had the art of making herself believe any thing she had a
mind to, upon a conversation with the queen-mother of France, fancied
the King of France might be inclined to marry her. So she writ to her
to come to Paris. In order to that, she made an equipage far above what
she could support. So she ran herself into debt, sold all her jewels, and
some estates that were in her power as her son's guardian; and was not
only disappointed of that vain expectation, but fell into some misfortunes
that lessened the reputation she had formerly lived in." -- Burnet''s
Own Times, vol. i. p. 238. She was mother of William III.
The reception of the Infanta of Portugal.
"The Infanta of Portugal landed in May (1662) at Portsmouth.
[Pepys, in his Diary, May 15th, 1662, says, "At night, all the bells in
the town rung, and bonfires made for the joy of the Queen's arrival,
who landed at Portsmouth last night. But I do not see much true joy,
but only an indifferent one, in the hearts of people, who are much discontented at the pride and luxury of the Court, and running in debt."] The
king went thither, and was married privately by Lord Aubigny. a secular
priest, and almoner to the queen, according to the rites of Rome, in the
queen's chamber; none present but the Portuguese ambassador, three
more Portuguese of quality, and two or three Portuguese women. What
made this necessary was, that the Earl of Sandwich did not marry her by
proxy, as usual, before she came away. How this happened, the duke
knows not, nor did the chancellor know of this private marriage. The
queen would not be bedded, till pronounced man and wife by Sheldon,
bishop of London." -- Extract 2, from King James II.'s Journal. -- Macpherson's State Papers, vol. i. In the same collection is a curious letter
from the King to Lord Clarendon, giving his opinion of the queen after
having seen her.
The King was inferior to none.
Charles II. was born 29th May, 1630, and died 6th February, 1684-5.
His character is very amply detailed, and accurately depicted by George
Saville, Marquis of Halifax, in a volume published by his grand-daughter
the Countess of Burlington, 8vo. 1750. See also Burnet, Clarendon, and
Sheffield Duke of Buckingham.
The Duke of York.
James Duke of York, afterwards King James II. He was born 15th
October, 1633; succeeded his brother 6th February, 1684-5; abdicated
the crown in 1688; and died 6th September, 1701. Bishop Burnet's
character of him appears not very far from the truth. -- "He was," says
this writer, "very brave in his youth; and so much magnified by Monsieur
Turenne, that till his marriage lessened him, he really clouded the king, and
passed for the superior genius. He was naturally candid and sincere, and
a firm friend, till affairs and his religion wore out all his first principles
and inclinations. He had a great desire to understand affairs: and in order to that he kept a constant journal of all that passed, of which he shewed
me a great deal. The Duke of Buckingham gave me once a short but severe character of the two brothers. It was the more severe, because it was
true: the king, (he said,) could see things if he would: and the duke
would see things if he could. He had no true judgment, and was soon
determined by those whom he trusted: but he was obstinate against all
other advices. He was bred with high notions of kingly authority, and
laid it down for a maxim, that all who opposed the king, were rebels in
their hearts. He was perpetually in one amour or other, without being
very nice in his choice: upon which the king once said, he believed his
brother had his mistresses given him by his priests for penance. He was
naturally eager and revengeful: and was against the taking off any, that
set up in an opposition to the measures of the court, and who by that
means grew popular in the house of commons. He was for rougher methods. He continued many years dissembling his religion, and seemed
zealous for the church of England. But it was chiefly on design to hinder
all propositions, that tended to unite us among ourselves. He was a frugal prince, and brought his court into method and magnificence, for he had
100,000l. a-year allowed him. He was made high admiral, and he came
to understand all the concerns of the sea very particularly."
Miss Anne Hyde, eldest daughter of Lord Chancellor Clarendon. King
James mentions this marriage in these terms. -- "The king at first refused
the Duke of York's marriage with Miss Hyde. Many of the duke's friends
and servants opposed it. The king at last consented, and the Duke of
York privately married her, and soon after owned the marriage. Her want
of birth was made up by endowments; and her carriage afterwards became
her acquired dignity." Again. "When his sister, the princess royal,
came to Paris to see the queen-mother, the Duke of York fell in love with
Mrs. Anne Hyde, one of her maids of honour. Besides her person, she
had all the qualities proper to inflame a heart less apt to take fire than his,
which she managed so well as to bring his passion to such an height, that,
between the time he first saw her and the winter before the king's restoration, he resolved to marry none but her; and promised her to do it: and
though, at first, when the duke asked the king his brother for his leave, he
refused, and dissuaded him from it, yet at last he opposed it no more, and
the duke married her privately, owned it some time after, and was ever
after a true friend to the chancellor for several years." -- Macpherson's
State Papers, vol. i.
[Pepys, in his Diary, October 7th, 1660, says: -- "To my lord's, and
dined with him; he all dinner time talking French to me, and telling me
the story how the Duke of York hath got my Lord Chancellor's daughter
with child, and that she do lay it to him, and that for certain he did
promise her marriage, and had signed it with his blood, but that he by
stealth had got the paper out of her cabinet. And that the king would
have him to marry her, but that he will not. So that the thing is very
bad for the duke, and them all; but my lord do make light of it, as a
thing that he believes is not a new thing for the duke to do abroad."
Again, Feb. 23rd, 1660-1. -- "Mr. Hartlett told me how my Lord Chancellor had lately got the Duke of York and Duchesse, and her woman,
my Lord Ossory, and a doctor, to make oath before most of the judges
of the kingdom, concerning all the circumstances of the marriage. And
in fine, it is confessed that they were not fully married till about a month
or two before she was brought to bed; but that they were contracted long
before, and time enough for the child to be legitimate. But I do not hear
that it was put to the judges to determine whether it was so or no."]
Edward Hyde, Earl of Clarendon, "for his comprehensive knowledge
of mankind, styled the chancellor of human nature. His character, at
this distance of time, may, and ought to be impartially considered. His
designing or blinded contemporaries heaped the most unjust abuse upon
him. The subsequent age, when the partizans of prerogative were at least
the loudest, if not the most numerous, smit with a work that deified their
martyr, have been unbounded in their encomium." -- Catalogue of Noble
Authors, vol. ii. p. 18. Lord Orford, who professes to steer a middle
course, and separate his great virtues as a man from his faults as an historian, acknowledges that he possessed almost every virtue of a minister
which could make his character venerable. He died in exile, in the year
The Duke of Ormond.
James Butler, Duke of Ormond, born 19th October, 1610, and died
21st July, 1688. Lord Clarendon, in the Continuation of his Life, observes, that "he frankly engaged his person and his fortune in the king's
service, from the first hour of the troubles, and pursued it with that courage and constancy, that when the king was murdered, and he deserted by
the Irish, contrary to the articles of peace which they had made with him,
and when he could make no longer defence, he refused all the conditions
which Cromwell offered, who would have given him all his vast estate if
he would have been contented to live quietly in some of his own houses,
without further concerning himself in the quarrel; and transported himself, without so much as accepting a pass from his authority, in a little
weak vessel into France, where he found the king, from whom he never
parted till he returned with him into England. Having thus merited as
much as a subject can do from a prince, he had much more credit and esteem with the king than any other man." -- Continuation of the Life of
Lord Clarendon, p. 4, fol. edit. Bishop Burnet says of him, "he was
a man every way fitted for a court; of a graceful appearance, a lively wit,
and a cheerful temper; a man of great expense; decent even in his vices,
for he always kept up the form of region. He had gone through many
transactions in Ireland with more fidelity than success. He had made a
treaty with the Irish, which was broken by the great body of them, though
some few of them adhered still to him. But the whole Irish nation did
still pretend, that though they had broke the agreement first, yet he, or
rather the king, in whose name he had treated with them, was bound to
perform all the articles of the treaty. He had miscarried so in the siege
of Dublin, that it very much lessened the opinion of his military conduct.
Yet his constant attendance on his master, his easiness to him, and his
great suffering for him, raised him to be lord-steward of the household,
and lord-lieutenant of Ireland. He was firm to the protestant religion,
and so far firm to the laws, that he always gave good advices; but when
bad ones were followed, he was not for complaining too much of them." --
Burnet's Own Times, vol. i. p. 230.
The Earl of St. Allan's.
Henry Jermyn, Earl of St. Alban's, and Baron of St. Edmund's Bury.
He was master of the horse to Queen Henrietta, and one of the privy-council to Charles II. In July 1660, he was sent ambassador to the court
of France, and, in 1671, he was made lord-chamberlain of his majesty's
household. He died January 2, 1683. Sir John Reresby asserts, that
Lord St. Alban's was married to Queen Henrietta. "The abbess of an
English college in Paris, whither the queen used to retire, would tell me,"
says Sir John, "that Lord Jermyn, since St. Alban's, had the queen
greatly in awe of him; and indeed it was obvious that he had great interest with her concerns; but he was married to her, or had children by her,
as some have reported, I did not then believe, though the thing was certainly so." -- Memoirs, p. 4. [Pepys says, in his Diary, Dec. 21st, 1660:
-- "I hear that the Princess Royal hath married herself to young Jermyn,
which is worse than the Duke of York's marrying the Chancellor's daughter, which is now publicly owned."] Madame Baviere, in her letters, says,
"Charles the First's widow made a clandestine marriage with her chevalier d'honneur, Lord St. Alban's, who treated her extremely ill, so that,
whilst she had not a faggot to warm herself, he had in his apartment a
good fire and a sumptuous table. He never gave the queen a kind word
and when she spoke to him he used to say, Que me veut cette femme?"
Hamilton hints at his selfishness a little lower.
Dissipated without splendour an immense estate, upon which he had just entered.
"The Duke of Buckingham is again one hundred and forty thousand
pounds in debt; and by this prorogation his creditors have time to tear
all his lands to pieces." -- Andrew Marvell's Works, 4to. edit., vol. i. p.
Sir George Berkeley.
This Sir George Berkeley, as he is here improperly called, was Charles
Berkley, second son of Sir ------ Berkley, of Bruton, in Gloucestershire,
and was the principal favourite and companion of the Duke of York in
all his campaigns. He was created Baron Berkley of Rathdown, and
Viscount Fitzharding of Ireland, and Baron Bottetort and Earl of Falmouth in England, 17th March, 1664. He had the address to secure
himself in the affections equally of the king and his brother at the same
time. Lord Clarendon, who seems to have conceived, and with reason, a
prejudice against him, calls him "a fellow of great wickedness," and says,
"he was one in whom few other men (except the king) had ever observed
any virtue or quality, which they did not wish their best friends without.
He was young, and of an insatiable ambition; and a little more experience
might have taught him all things which his weak parts were capable of."
-- Clarendon's Life, pp. 34, 267. Bishop Burnet, however, is rather
more favourable. "Berkley," says he, "was generous in his expence;
and it was thought if he had outlived the lewdness of that time, and come
to a more sedate course of life, he would have put the king on great and
noble designs." -- History, vol. i. p. 137. He lost his life in the action
at Southwold Bay, the 2nd June, 1665, by a shot, which, at the same
time, killed Lord Muskerry and Mr. Boyle, as they were standing on the
quarter-deck, near the Duke of York, who was covered with their blood.
"Lord Falmouth," as King James observes, "died not worth a farthing,
though not expensive." -- Macpherson's State Papers, vol. i. "He was,
however, lamented by the king with floods of tears, to the amazement of
all who had seen how unshaken he stood on other assaults of fortune." --
Clarendon's Life, p. 269. Even his death did not save him from Marvell's satire.
Falmouth was there, I know not what to act,
Some say, 'twas to grow duke too by contract;
An untaught bullet, in his wanton scope,
Dashes him all to pieces, and his hope:
Such was his rise, such was his fall unpraised, --
A chance shot sooner took him than chance raised;
His shattered head the fearless duke disdains,
And gave the last first proof that he had brains.
Advice to a Painter, p. 1.
The Earl of Arran.
Richard Butler, Earl of Arran, fifth son of James Butler, the first Duke
of Ormond. He was born 15th July, 1639, and educated with great
care, being taught every thing suitable to his birth, and the great affection
his parents had for him. As he grew up, he distinguished himself by a
brave and excellent disposition, which determined him to a military life.
When the duke, his father, was first made lord-lieutenant of Ireland, after
the Restoration, his majesty was pleased, by his letter, dated April 23,
1662, to create Lord Richard, Baron Butler of Cloghgrenan, Viscount
Tullogh, in the county of Catherlough, and Earl of Arran, with remainder
to his brother. In September, 1664, he married Lady Mary Stuart, only
surviving daughter of James Duke of Richmond and Lennox, by Mary,
the only daughter of the great Duke of Buckingham, who died in July,
1667, at the age of eighteen, and was interred at Kilkenny. He distinguished himself in reducing the mutineers at Carrick-Fergus, and behaved
with great courage in the famous sea-fight with the Dutch, in 1673. In
August that year, he was created Baron Butler of Weston, in the county
of Huntingdon. He married, in the preceding June, Dorothy, daughter
of John Ferrars, of Tamworth Castle, in Warwickshire, Esq. In 1682,
he was constituted lord-deputy of Ireland, upon his father's going over to
England, and held that office until August, 1684, when the duke returned.
In the year 1686, he died at London, and was interred in Westminster-abbey, leaving an only daughter, Charlotte, who was married to Charles
The Earl of Ossory.
Thomas Earl of Ossory, eldest son of the first, and father of the last
Duke of Ormond, was born at Kilkenny, 8th July, 1634. At the age of
twenty-one years he had so much distinguished himself, that Sir Robert
Southwell then drew the following character of him: -- "He is a young
man with a very handsome face; a good head of hair; well set; very good-natured; rides the great horse very well; is a very good tennis-player,
fencer, and dancer; understands music, and plays on the guitar and lute;
speaks French elegantly; reads Italian fluently; is a good historian; and
so well versed in romances, that if a gallery be full of pictures and
hangings, he will tell the stories of all that are there described. He
shuts up his door at eight o'clock in the evening, and studies till midnight: he is temperate, courteous, and excellent in all his behaviour."
[Evelyn, who became acquainted with the Earl of Ossory at Paris
in 1649-50, records the following amusing anecdote in his diary: --
"May 7th, 1650. -- I went with Sir Richard Browne's lady and my wife,
together with the Earl of Chesterfield, Lord Ossory, and his brother, to
Vamber, a place near the City famous for butter; when coming homewards, being on foot, a quarrel arose between Lord Ossory and a man
in a garden, who thrust Lord Ossory from the gate with uncivil language,
on which our young gallants struck the fellow on the pate, and bid him
ask pardon, which he did with much submission, and so we parted; but
we were not gone far before we heard a noise behind us, and saw people
coming with guns, swords, staves, and forks, and who followed flinging
stones; on which we turned and were forced to engage, and with our
swords, stones, and the help of our servants (one of whom had a pistol)
made our retreat for near a quarter of a mile, when we took shelter in
a house, where we were besieged, and at length forced to submit to be
prisoners. Lord Hatton with some others were taken prisoners in the
flight, and his lordship was confined under three locks, and as many
doors, in this rude fellow's master's house, who pretended to be steward
to Monsieur St. Germain, one of the Presidents of the Grand Chambre
du Parlement, and a Canon of Notre Dame. Several of us were much
hurt. One of our lacquies escaping to Paris, caused the bailiff of St.
Germain to come with his guard and rescue us. Immediately afterwards
came Monsieur St. Germain himself in great wrath on hearing that his
housekeeper was assaulted; but when he saw the king's officers, the
gentlemen and noblemen, with his Majesty's Resident, and understood
the occasion, he was ashamed of the accident, requesting the fellow's
pardon, and desiring the ladies to accept their submission and a supper
at his house."
And again, May 12th. -- "I have often heard that gallant gentleman,
my Lord Ossory, affirm solemnly that in all the conflicts he ever was in,
at sea or on land (in the most desperate of which he had often been), he
believed he was never in so much danger as when these people rose
against us. He used to call it the battaile de Vambre, and remember it
with a great deal of mirth as an adventure en cavalier."]
His death was occasioned by a fever, 30th July, 1680, to the grief of
his family and the public.
The elder of the Hamiltons.
Lord Orford, in a note on this passage, mentions George Hamilton,
and Anthony Hamilton, the author of this present work, as the persons
here intended to be pointed out; and towards the conclusion of the volume
has attempted to disentangle the confusion occasioned by the want of particularly distinguishing to which of the gentlemen the several adventures
belong in which their name occurs. The elder Hamilton, however, here
described, was, I conceive, neither George nor Anthony, but James Hamilton, their brother, eldest son of Sir George Hamilton, fourth son of the
Earl of Abercorn, by Mary Butler, third sister to James, the first duke of
Ormond. This gentleman was a great favourite with King Charles II.,
who made him a groom of his bed-chamber, and colonel of a regiment.
In an engagement with the Dutch, he had one of his legs taken off by a
cannon-ball, of which wound he died 6th June, 1673, soon after he was
brought home, and was buried in Westminster-abbey. George Hamilton
was afterwards knighted, made a count in France, and mareschal-du-camp in that service. He married Miss Jennings, hereafter mentioned,
and died, according to Lodge, in 1667, leaving issue by her, three
The beau Sydney.
Robert Sydney, the third son of the Earl of Leicester, and brother of
the famous Algernon Sydney, who was beheaded. This is Lord Orford's
account; though, no less authority, I should have been inclined to have
considered Henry Sydney, his younger brother, who was afterwards
treated Earl of Rumney, and died 8th April, 1704, as the person intended. There are some circumstances which seem particularly to point
to him. Burnet, speaking of him, says, "he was a graceful man, and
had lived long in the court, where he had some adventures that became
very public. He was a man of a sweet and caressing temper, had no
malice in his heart, but too great a love of pleasure. He had been sent
envoy to Holland, in the year 1679, where he entered into such particular confidences with the prince, that he had the highest measure of his
trust and favour that any Englishman ever had." -- Burnet's Own
Times, vol. ii. p. 494.
In the Essay on Satire, by Dryden and Mulgrave, he is spoken of in
no very decent terms.
These verses, however, have been applied to Sir Charles Sedley, whose
name was originally spelled Sidley. Robert Sydney died at Penshurst,
'And little Sid, for simile renown'd.
Pleasure has always sought, but never found:
Though all his thoughts on wine and women fall,
His are so bad, sure he ne'er thinks at all.
The flesh he lives upon is rank and strong;
His meat and mistresses are kept too long.
But sure we all mistake this pious man,
Who mortifies his person all he can:
What we uncharitably take for sin,
Are only rules of this odd capuchin;
For never hermit, under grave pretence,
Has lived more contrary to common sense."
The queen-dowager, his mistress, lived not over well in France.
To what a miserable state the queen was reduced may be seen in the
following extract from De Retz. -- "Four or five days before the king
removed from Paris, I went to visit the Queen of England, whom I found
in her daughter's chamber, who hath been since Duchess of Orleans. At
my coming in she said, 'You see I am come to keep Henrietta company.
The poor child could not rise to-day for want of a fire.' The truth is,
that the cardinal for six months together had not ordered her any money
towards her pension; that no trades-people would trust her for any thing -,
and that there was not at her lodgings in the Louvre one single billet.
You will do me the justice to suppose, that the Princess of England did
not keep her bed the next day for want of a faggot; but it was not this
which the Princess of Condé meant in her letter. What she spoke about
was, that some days after my visiting the Queen of England, I remembered the condition I had found her in, and had strongly represented the
shame of abandoning her in that manner, which caused the parliament to
send 40,000 livres to her majesty. Posterity will hardly believe that a
Princess of England, grand-daughter of Henry the Great, had wanted a
faggot, in the month of January, to get out of bed in the Louvre, and in
the eyes of a French court. We read in histories, with horror, of baseness less monstrous than this; and the little concern I have met with
about it in most people's minds, has obliged me to make, I believe, a
thousand times, this reflection, -- that examples of times past move men
beyond comparison more than those of their own times. We accustom
ourselves to what we see; and I have sometimes told you, that I doubted
whether Caligula's horse being made a consul would have surprised us so
much as we imagine." -- Memoirs, vol. i. p. 261. As for the relative
situation of the king and Lord Jermyn (afterwards St. Alban's), Lord
Clarendon says, that the "Marquis of Ormond was compelled to put
himself in prison, with other gentlemen, at a pistole a-week for his diet,
and to walk the streets a-foot, which was no honourable custom in Paris,
whilst the Lord Jermyn kept an excellent table for those who courted
him, and had a coach of his own, and all other accommodations incident
to the most full fortune: and if the king had the most urgent occasion
for the use but of twenty pistoles, as sometimes he had, he could not find
credit to borrow it, which he often had experiment of." -- History of the
Rebellion, vol. iii. p. 2.
Henry Jermyn, younger son of Thomas, elder brother of the Earl of
St. Alban's. He was created Baron Dover in 1685, and died without
children, at Cheveley, in Cambridgeshire, April 6, 1708. His corpse
was carried to Bruges, in Flanders, and buried in the monastery of the
Carmelites there. St. Evremont, who visited Mr. Jermyn at Cheveley,
says, "we went thither, and were very kindly received by a person, who,
though he has taken his leave of the court, has carried the civility and
good taste of it into the country." -- St. Evremont's Works, vol. ii.
The princess-royal was the first who was taken with him.
It was suspected of this princess to have had a similar engagement
with the Duke of Buckingham as the queen with Jermyn, and that was
the cause she would not see the duke on his second voyage to Holland, in
the year 1652.
The Countess of Castlemaine.
This lady who made so distinguished a figure in the annals of infamy,
was Barbara, daughter and heir of William Villiers, Lord Viscount Grandison, of the kingdom of Ireland, who died in 1642, in consequence of
wounds received at the battle of Edge-hill. She was married, just before
the Restoration, to Roger Palmer, Esq., then a student in the Temple,
and heir to a considerable fortune. In the 13th year of King Charles II.
he was created Earl of Castlemaine in the kingdom of Ireland. She had
a daughter, born in February 1661, while she cohabited with her husband; but shortly after she became the avowed mistress of the king, who
continued his connection with her until about the year 1672, when she
was delivered of a daughter, which was supposed to be Mr. Churchill's,
afterwards Duke of Marlborough, and which the king disavowed. Her
gallantries were by no means confined to one or two, nor were they unknown to his majesty. In the year 1670, she was created Baroness of
Nonsuch, in Surrey, Countess of Southampton, and Duchess of Cleveland, during her natural life, with remainder to Charles and George Fitzroy, her eldest and third son, and their heirs male. In July 1705, her
husband died, and she soon after married a man of desperate fortune,
known by the name of Handsome Fielding, who behaving in a manner
unjustifiably severe towards her, she was obliged to have recourse to law
for her protection. Fortunately it was discovered that Fielding had
already a wife living, by which means the duchess was enabled to free herself from his authority. She lived about two years afterwards, and died
of a dropsy, on the 9th of October, 1709, in her 69th year. Bishop Burnet says, "she was a woman of great beauty, but most enormously
vicious and ravenous; foolish, but imperious; very uneasy to the king,
and always carrying on intrigues with other men, while yet she pretended
she was jealous of him. His passion for her, and her strange behaviour
towards him, did so disorder him, that often he was not master of himself,
nor capable of minding business, which, in so critical a time, required
great application." -- Burnet's Own Times, vol. i. p. 129.
[The following amusing morceaux, extracted from Pepys, are highly
illustrative: -- "May 21st, 1662. -- My wife and I to my lord's lodging;
where she and I stayed walking in White Hall garden. And in the Privy
garden saw the finest smocks and linen petticoats of my Lady Castlemaine's, with rich lace at the bottom, that ever I saw; and did me good
to look at them. Sarah told me how the king dined at my Lady Castlemaine's, and supped every day and night the last week; and that the
night the bonfires were made for joy of the queen's arrival, the king
was there; but there was no fire at her door, though at all the rest of the
doors almost in the street; which was much observed: and that the
king and she did send for a pair of scales and weighed one another; and
she, being with child, was said to be heaviest. But she is now a most
disconsolate creature, and comes not out of doors, since the king's
"July 22nd, 1663. -- In discourse of the ladies at court, Capt. Ferrers
tells me that my Lady Castlemaine is now as great again as ever she was;
and that her going away was only a fit of her own upon some slighting
words of the king, so that she called for her coach at a quarter of an
hour's warning, and went to Richmond; and the king, the next morning,
under pretence of going a hunting, went to see her and make friends,
and never was a hunting at all. After which she came back to court, and
commands the king as much as ever, and hath and doth what she will.
No longer ago than last night, there was a private entertainment made
for the king and queen at the Duke of Buckingham's, and she was not
invited: but being at my Lady Suffolk's, her aunt's (where my Lady
Jemimah and Lord Sandwich dined), yesterday, she was heard to say,
"Well, much good may it do them, and for all that I will be as merry
as they:" and so she went home and caused a great supper to be prepared. And after the king had been with the queen at Wallingford
House, he come to my Lady Castlemaine's, and was there all night, and
my Lord Sandwich with him. He tells me he believes that, as soon as
the king can get a husband for Mrs. Stewart, however, my Lady Castlemaine's nose will be out of joint; for that she comes to be in great
esteem, and is more handsome than she."
"June 10th, 1666. -- The queen, in ordinary talk before the ladies
in her drawing-room, did say to my Lady Castlemaine that she feared the
king did take cold, by staying so late abroad at her house. She answered
before them all, that he did not stay so late abroad with her, for he went
betimes thence (though he do not before one, two, or three in the
morning), but must stay somewhere else. The king then coming in and
overhearing, did whisper in her ear aside, and told her she was a bold
impertinent woman, and bid her to be gone out of the court, and not
come again till he sent for her; which she did presently, and went to a
lodging in the Pall Mall, and kept there two or three days, and then sent
to the king to know whether she might send for her things away out of
her house. The king sent to her, she must first come and view them:
and so she come, and the king went to her, and all friends again. He
tells me she did, in her anger, say she would be even with the king, and
print his letters to her."
"Aug. 7th, 1667. -- Though the king and my Lady Castlemaine are
friends again, she is not at White Hall, but at Sir D. Harvey's, whither
the king goes to her; and he says she will make him ask her forgiveness
upon his knees, and promise to offend her no more so: and that, indeed,
she did threaten to bring all his bastards to his eloset-door, and hath
nearly hectored him out of his wits."]
Anna Maria, Countess of Shrewsbury, eldest daughter of Robert Brudenel, Earl of Cardigan, and wife of Francis, Earl of Shrewsbury, who
was killed in a duel, by George, Duke of Buckingham, March 16, 1667.
She afterwards re-married with George Rodney Bridges, Esq., second son
of Sir Thomas Bridges of Keynsham, in Somersetshire, knight, and died
April 20, 1702. By her second husband she had one son, George Rodney
Bridges, who died in 1751. This woman is said to have been so abandoned, as to have held, in the habit of a page, her gallant, the duke's
horse, while he fought and killed her husband; after which she went to
bed with him, stained with her husband's blood.
[Pepys says, in his Diary, Jan. 17th, 1667-8. -- "Much discourse of
the duel yesterday between the Duke of Buckingham, Holmes, and one
Jenkins, on one side, and my Lord of Shrewsbury, Sir John Talbot, and
one Bernard Howard, on the other side: and all about my Lady Shrewsbury, who is at this time, and hath for a great while been, a mistress to
the Duke of Buckingham. And so her husband challenged him, and
they met yesterday in a close near Barne-Elmes, and there fought: and
my Lord Shrewsbury is run through the body, from the right breast
through the shoulder; and Sir John Talbot all along up one of his
arms; and Jenkins killed upon the place, and the rest all in a little
measure wounded. This will make the world think that the king hath
good counsellors about him, when the Duke of Buckingham, the greatest
man about him, is a fellow of no more sobriety than to fight about a
mistress. And this may prove a very bad accident to the Duke of
Buckingham, but that my Lady Castlemaine do rule all at this time as
much as ever she did, and she will, it is believed, keep all matters well
with the Duke of Buckingham: though this is a time that the king will
be very backward, I suppose, to appear in such a business. And it is
pretty to hear how the king had some notice of this challenge a week or
two ago. and did give it to my Lord General to confine the duke, or
take security that he should not do any such thing as fight: and the
general trusted to the king that he, sending for him, would do it; and
the king trusted to the general. And it is said that my Lord Shrewsbury's case is to be feared, that he may die too; and that may make it
much worse for the Duke of Buckingham: and I shall not be much sorry
for it, that we may have some sober man come in his room to assist in
And again, "May 15th, 1668. -- I am told that the Countess of
Shrewsbury is brought home by the Duke of Buckingham to his house;
where his duchess saying that it was not for her and the other to live
together in a house, he answered, ' Why, madam, I did think so, and
therefore have ordered your coach to be ready to carry you to your
father's;' which was a devilish speech, but, they say, true; and my
Lady Shrewsbury is there, it seems."]
The Miss Brooks.
One of these ladies married Sir John Denham, and is mentioned hereafter.
The new queen gave but little additional brilliancy to the court.
Lord Clarendon confirms, in some measure, this account. "There was
a numerous family of men and women, that were sent from Portugal, the
most improper to promote that conformity in the queen that was necessary
for her condition and future happiness that could be chosen; the women,
for the most part, old, and ugly, and proud, incapable of any conversation
with persons of quality and a liberal education: and they desired, and indeed had conspired so far to possess the queen themselves, that she should
neither learn the English language, nor use their habit, nor depart from
the manners and fashions cf her own country in any particulars; which
resolution," they told, "would be for the dignity of Portugal, and would
quickly induce the English ladies to conform to her majesty's practice.
And this imagination had made that impression, that the tailor who had
been sent into Portugal to make her clothes could never be admitted to
see her, or receive any employment. Nor when she came to Portsmouth,
and found there several ladies of honour and prime quality to attend her
in the places to which they were assigned by the king, did she receive any
of them till the king himself came; nor then with any grace, or the liberty
that belonged to their places and offices. She could not be persuaded to
be dressed out of the wardrobe that the king had sent to her, but would
wear the clothes which she had brought, until she found that the king was
displeased, and would be obeyed; whereupon she conformed, against the
advice of her women, who continued their opiniatrety, without any one of
them receding from their own mode, which exposed them the more to
reproach." -- Continuation of Clarendon's Life, p. 168. In a short time
after their arrival in England, they were ordered back to Portugal.
Katherine of Braganza was far from appearing with splendour in the charming court where she came to reign; however, in the end she was pretty successful.
[Evelyn says, "May 30th, 1662. -- The queen arrived with a train of
Portuguese ladies in their monstrous fardingals or guard-infantas, their
complexions olivader, and sufficiently unagreeable. Her Majesty in
the same habit, her foretop long and turned aside very strangely. She was
yet of the handsomest countenance of all the rest, and, though low of
stature, prettily shaped, languishing and excellent eyes, her teeth wronging
her mouth by sticking a little too far out; for the rest lovely enough."]
Lord Clarendon says, "the queen had beauty and wit enough to make
herself agreeable to him (the king;) and it is very certain, that, at their
first meeting, and for some time after, the king had very good satisfaction
in her." -- "Though she was of years enough to have had more experience
of the world, and of as much wit as could be wished, and of a humour
very agreeable at some seasons, yet, she had been bred, according to the
mode and discipline of her country, in a monastery, where she had only
seen the women who attended her, and conversed with the religious who
resided there; and, without doubt, in her inclinations, was enough disposed
to have been one of that number: and from this restraint she was called
out to be a great queen, and to a free conversation in a court that was to
be upon the matter new formed, and reduced from the manners of a licentious age to the old rules and limits which had been observed in better
times; to which regular and decent conformity the present disposition of
men or women was not enough inclined to submit, nor the king enough
disposed to enact." -- Continuation of Lord Clarendon's Life, p. 167.
After some struggle, she submitted to the king's licentious conduct, and
from that time lived upon easy terms with him, until his death. On the.
30th of March, 1692, she left Somerset-house, her usual residence, and
retired to Lisbon, where she died 31st December, 1705, N. S.
"The Duchess of York," says Bishop Burnet, "was a very extraordinary woman. She had great knowledge, and a lively sense of things.
She soon understood what belonged to a princess, and took state on her
rather too much. She writ well, and had begun the duke's life, of which
she shewed me a volume. It was all drawn from his journal; and he intended to have employed me in carrying it on. She was bred in great
strictness in religion, and practised secret confession. Morley told me he
was her confessor. She began at twelve years old, and continued under
his direction till, upon her father's disgrace, he was put from the court.
She was generous and friendly, but was too severe an enemy." -- Burnet's Own Times, vol. i. p. 237. She was contracted to the duke
at Breda, November 24, 1659, and married at Worcester-house, 3rd
September, 1660, in the night, between eleven and two, by Dr. Joseph
Crowther, the duke's chaplain; the Lord Ossory giving her in marriage.
-- Kennet's Register, p. 246. She died 31st March, 1671, having previously acknowledged herself to be a Roman Catholic. -- See also her
character by Bishop Morley. -- Kennet's Register, p. 385, 390.
The Queen-dowager returned after the marriage of the Princess-royal.
Queen Henrietta Maria arrived at Whitehall, 2nd November, 1660,
after nineteen years' absence. She was received with acclamations; and
bonfires were lighted on the occasion, both in London and Westminster.
She returned to France with her daughter, the Princess Henrietta, 2nd January, 1660-1. She arrived again at Greenwich, 28th July, 1662, and
continued to keep her court in England, until July, 1665, when she embarked for France, "and took so many things with her," says Lord Clarendon, "that it was thought by many that she did not intend ever to
return into England. Whatever her intentions at that time were, she
never did see England again, though she lived many years after." -- Continuation of Clarendon's Life, p. 263. She died at Colombe, near Paris,
in August, 1669; and her son, the Duke of York, pronounces this eulogium on her: "She excelled in all the good qualities of a good wife, of a
good mother, and a good Christian." -- Macpherson's Original Papers,
Charles de St. Dennis, Seigneur de St. Evremond, was born at St.
Denis le Guast, in Lower Normandy, on the 1st of April, 1613. He was
educated at Paris, with a view to the profession of the law; but he early
quitted that pursuit, and went into the army, where he signalized himself
on several occasions. At the time of the Pyrenean treaty, he wrote a letter censuring the conduct of Cardinal Mazarine, which occasioned his being
banished France. He first took refuge in Holland; but, in 1662, he removed into England, where he continued, with a short interval, during the
rest of his life. In 1675, the Duchess of Mazarine came to reside in England; and with her St. Evremond passed much of his time. He preserved his health and cheerfulness to a very great age, and died 9th of September, 1703, aged ninety years, five months, and twenty days. His biographer, Monsieur Des Maizeaux, describes him thus:-- " M. de St. Evremond had blue, lively, and sparkling eyes, a large forehead, thick eye-brows, a handsome mouth, and a sneering physiognomy. Twenty years before his death, a wen grew between his eye-brows, which in time increased to a considerable bigness. He once designed to have it cut off, but as it was no ways troublesome to him, and he little regarded that kind of deformity, Dr. Le Fevre advised him to let it alone, lest such an operation should be attended with dangerous symptoms in a man of his age. He would often make merry with himself on account of his wen, his great leather-cap, and his grey hair, which he chose to wear rather than a periwig." St. Evremond was a kind of Epicurean philosopher, and drew his own character in the following terms, in a letter to Count de Grammont:-- " He was a philosopher equally removed from superstition and impiety; a voluptuary who had no less aversion from debauchery than inclination for pleasure , a man who had never felt the pressure of indigence, and who had never been in possession of affluence; he lived in a condition despised by those who have every thing, envied by those who have nothing, and relished by those who make their reason the foundation of their happiness. When he was young he hated profusion, being persuaded that some degree of wealth was necessary for the conveniences of a long life: when he was old, he could hardly endure economy, being of opinion that want is little to be dreaded when a man has but little time left to be miserable. He was well pleased with nature, and did not complain of fortune. He hated vice, was indulgent to frailties, and lamented misfortunes. He sought not after the failings of men with a design to expose them; he only found what was ridiculous in them for his own amusement: he had a secret pleasure in discovering this himself, and would, indeed, have had a still greater in discovering this to others, had he not been checked by discretion. Life, in his opinion, was too short to read all sorts of books, and to burden one's memory with a multitude of things, at the expense of one's judgment. He did not apply himself to the most learned writings, in order to acquire knowledge, but to the most rational, to fortify his reason: he sometimes chose the most delicate, to give delicacy to his own taste, and sometimes the most agreeable, to give the same to his own genius. It remains that he should be described, such as he was, in friendship and in religion. In friendship he was more constant than a philosopher, and more sincere than a young man of good nature without experience. With regard to religion, his piety consisted more in justice and charity than in penance or mortification. He placed his confidence in God, trusting in his goodness, and hoping that in the bosom of his providence he should find his repose and his felicity.' -- He was buried in Westminster Abbey.
Avoid love, by pursuing other pleasures; love has never been favourable to you.
"Saint Evremond and Bussi-Rabutin, who have also written on the life of the Count de Grammont, agree with Hamilton in representing him as a man less fortunate in love than at play; not seeking for any other pleasure in the conquest of a woman but that of depriving another of her; and not able to persuade any one of his passion, because he spoke to her, as at all other times, in jest; but cruelly revenging himself on those who refused to hear him; corrupting the servants of those whom they did favour, counterfeiting their hand-writing, intercepting their letters, disconcerting their rendezvous; in one word, disturbing their amours by every thing which a rival, prodigal, indefatigable, and full of artifice, can be imagined to do. The straightest ties of blood could not secure any one from his detraction. His nephew, the Count de Guiche, was a victim; he had, in truth, offended the Count de Grammont, by having supplanted him in the affection of the Countess de Fiesque, whom he loved afterwards for the space of twelve years. Here was enough to irritate the self-love of a man less persuaded of his own merit."
Hamilton does not describe the exterior of the count, but accuses Bussi-Rabutin of having, in the following description, given a more agreeable than faithful portrait of him:-- " The Chevalier had laughing eyes, a well-formed nose, a beautiful mouth, a small dimple in the chin, which had an agreeable effect on his countenance, a certain delicacy in his physiognomy, and a handsome shape, if he had not stooped."
Mademoiselle de la Loupe, who is mentioned in De Retz's Memoirs, vol. iii. p. 95. She married the Count d'Olonne, and became famous for her gallantries, of which the Count de Bussi speaks so much, in his "History of the Amours of the Gauls." Her maiden name was Catherine Henrietta d'Angennes, and she was daughter to Charles d'Angennes, Lord of la Loupe, Baron of Amberville, by Mary du Raynier. There is a long character of her by St. Evremond, in his works, vol. i. p. 17. The same writer, mentioning the concern of some ladies for the death of the Duke of Candale, says, "But his true mistress (the Countess d'Olonne) made herself famous by the excess of her affliction, and had, in my opinion, been happy, if she had kept it on to the last. One amour is creditable to a lady; and I know not whether it be not more advantageous to their reputation than never to have been in love." -- St. Evremond's Works, vol. ii. p. 24.
The Countess de Fiesque
This lady seems to have been the wife of the Count de Fiesque, who is mentioned by St. Evremond, as "fruitful in military chimeras; who, besides the post of lieutenant-general, which he had at Paris, obtained a particular commission for the beating up of the quarters, and other rash and sudden exploits, which may be resolved upon whilst one is singing the air of La Barre, or dancing a minuet." -- St. Evremond's Works, vol. i. p. 6. The count's name occurs very frequently in De Retz's Memoirs.
Mr. Jones, afterwards Earl of Ranelagh.
Richard, the first Earl of Ranelagh, was member of the English house of Commons, and vice-treasurer of Ireland, 1674. He held several offices under King William and Queen Anne, and died 5th January, 1711. Bishop Burnet says, "Lord Ranelagh was a young man of great parts, and as great vices: he had a pleasantness in his conversation that took much with the king; and had a great dexterity in business." -- Burnet's Own Times, vol. i. p. 373.
Amongst the queen's maids of honour there was one called Warmestre.
Lord Orford observes, that there is a family of the name of Warminster settled at Worcester, of which five persons are interred in the cathedral. One of them was dean of the church, and his epitaph mentions his attachment to the royal family. Miss Warminster, however, was probably a fictitious name. The last Earl of Arran, who lived only a short time after the period these transactions are supposed to have happened, asserted, that the maid of honour here spoken of was Miss Mary Kirk, sister of the Countess of Oxford, and who, three years after she was driven from court, married Sir Thomas Vernon, under the supposed character of a widow. It was not improbable she then assumed the name of Warminster. In the year 1669, the following is the list of the maids of honour to the queen:-- 1. Mrs. Simona Carew. 2. Mrs. Catherine Bainton. 3. Mrs. Henrietta Maria Price. 4. Mrs. Winifred Wells. The lady who had then the office of mother of the maids was Lady Saunderson. -- See Chamberlayne's Angliæ Notitia, 1669, p. 301.
Mrs. Jane Middleton, according to Granger, was a woman of small fortune, but great beauty. Her portrait is in the gallery at Windsor.
Frances, Duchess of Richmond, daughter of Walter Stewart, son of Walter, Baron of Blantyre, and wife of Charles Stewart, Duke of Richmond and Lennox: a lady of exquisite beauty, if justly represented in a puncheon made by Roettiere, his majesty's engraver of the mint, in order to strike a medal of her, which exhibits the finest face that perhaps was ever seen. The king was supposed to be desperately in love with her;
and it became common discourse, that there was a design on foot to get him divorced from the queen, in order to marry this lady. [Pepys describes her as the greatest beauty he ever saw in his life: "With her cocked hat and a red plume, with her sweet eye, little Roman nose, and excellent taille;" and adds, "If ever woman can, do exceed my Lady Castlemaine, at least in this dress: nor do I wonder if the king changes, which I verily believe is the reason of his coldness to my Lady Castlemaine."] Lord Clarendon was thought to have promoted the match with the Duke of Richmond, thereby to prevent the other design, which he imagined would hurt the king's character, embroil his affairs at present, and entail all the evils of a disputed succession on the nation. Whether he actually encouraged the Duke of Richmond's marriage, doth not appear; but it is certain that he was so strongly possessed of the king's inclination to a divorce, that, even after his disgrace, he was persuaded the Duke of Buckingham had undertaken to carry that matter through the parliament. It is certain too that the king considered him as the chief promoter of Miss Stewart's marriage, and resented it in the highest degree. The ceremony took place privately, and it was publicly declared in April, 1667. From one of Sir Robert Southwell's dispatches, dated Lisbon, December 2/12, 1667, it appears that the report of the queen's intended divorce had not then subsided in her native country. -- History of the Revolutions of Portugal, 1740, p. 352. The duchess became a widow in 1672, and died October 15, 1702. See Burnet's History, Ludlow's Memoirs, and Carte's Life of the Duke of Ormond. A figure in wax of this duchess is still to be seen in Westminster Abbey.
Theodosia, daughter of Arthur, Lord Capel, first wife of Henry Hyde, the second Earl of Clarendon.
Jacob Hall, the famous rope-dancer
"There was a symmetry and elegance, as well as strength and agility, in the person of Jacob Hall, which was much admired by the ladies, who regarded him as a due composition of Hercules and Adonis. The open-hearted Duchess of Cleveland was said to have been in love with this rope-dancer and Goodman the player at the same time. The former received a salary from her grace." -- Granger, vol. ii. part ii. p. 461.
Thomas Howard, brother to the Earl of Carlisle.
Thomas Howard, fourth son of Sir William Howard. He married Mary, Duchess of Richmond, daughter of George Villiers, Duke of Buckingham, and died 1678. -- See Mad. Dunois's Memoirs of the English Court, 8vo., 1708.
This place appears, from the description of its situation in the following extract, and in some ancient plans, to have been near Charing-cross, probably where houses are now built, though still retaining the name of gardens. The entertainments usually to be met with there are thus described by a contemporary writer: "The manner is, as the company returns (i. e. from Hyde-park), to alight at the Spring-garden, so called in order to the parke, as our Thuilleries is to the course: the inclosure not disagreeable, for the solemness of the grove, the warbling of the birds, and as it opens into the spacious walks at St. James's; but the company walk in it at such a rate, you would think all the ladies were so many Atalantas contending with their wooers; and, my lord, there was no appearance that I should prove Hippomenes, who could with much ado keep pace with them: but as fast as they run, they stay there so long as if they wanted not time to finish the race; for it is usual here to find some of the young company till midnight; and the thickets of the garden seem to be contrived to all advantages of gallantry, after they have refreshed with the collation, which is here seldom omitted, at a certain cabaret, in the middle of this paradise, where the forbidden fruits are certain trifling tarts, neats' tongues, salicious meats, and bad Rhenish, for which the gallants pay sauce, as indeed they do at all such houses throughout England; for they think it a piece of frugality beneath them to bargain or account for what they eat in any place, however unreasonably imposed upon." -- Character of England, 12mo., 1659, p. 56, written, it is said, by John Evelyn, Esq. Spring-garden is the scene of intrigue in many of our comedies of this period.
This was Montagu.
Ralph Montagu, second son of Edward, Lord Montagu. He was master of the horse to the queen, and, in 1669, was sent ambassador extraordinary to France; on his return from whence, in January, 1672, he was sworn of the privy-council. He afterwards became master of the great wardrobe, and was sent a second time to France. He took a very decided part in the prosecution of the popish plot, in 1678; but on the sacrifice of his friend, Lord Russell, he retired to Montpelier during the rest of King Charles's reign. He was active at the Revolution, and soon after created Viscount Monthermer, and Earl of Montagu. In 1705, ne became Marquis of Monthermer, and Duke of Montagu. He died 7th March, 1 709, in his 73rd year, leaving behind him the character of a very indulgent parent, a kind and bountiful master, a very hearty friend, a noble patron of men of merit, and a true assertor of English liberty.
Elizabeth, sister of the author of these Memoirs, and daughter of Sir George Hamilton, fourth son of James, the first Earl of Abercorn, by Mary, third daughter of Thomas, Viscount Thurles, eldest son of Walter, eleventh Earl of Ormond, and sister to James, the first Duke of Ormond. She married Philibert, Count of Grammont, the hero of these Memoirs, by whom she had two daughters: Claude Charlotte, married, 3rd April, 1694, to Henry, Earl of Stafford; and another, who became superior, or abbess, of the Chanonesses in Lorraine.
Memoirs of Count Grammont